SAN MARINO WORKSHOP ON ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY FOR MATTER AND ANTIMATTER
Italy September 5 to 9, 2011 Dedicated to the 70th birthday of Prof. Erik Trell, Sweden Keynote speaker for matter and antimatter Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli, U.S.A.
Organized by the Segreteria di Stato per la Ricerca (Research Ministry) della Repubblica di San Marino,
The R. M. Santilli Foundations, and The Institute for Basic Research, Florida, U.S.A.

Independent Experimental Confirmation of
Santilli IsoRedShift and IsoBlueShift
and their Cosmological Implications.

Richard Anderson
The R. M. Santilli Foundation
Email: board@santilli-foundation.org

We are pleased to announce the experimental confirmation by independent European and American scientists of Santilli's IsoRedShift and IsoBlueShift in the propagation of light within transparent physical media, which were predicted by Santilli in 1978 when at Harvard University under DOE support, treated in numerous subsequent works, and first experimentally verified in 2010 (among a vast literature, see: Ref. [1] of 1983 on the first covering of the Lorentz symmetry for physical media; monograph [2] of 1991 on the first systematic presentation; paper [3] of 2010 on the first experimental verification; five monographs [4] of 2008 on a comprehensive technical review; proceedings [5] of 2011 on the recent Nepal Conference for an update; monograph [6] for an independent review and series [7] for web-lectures in the field). We are referring to:

Isoshift (IS) consisting of a shift of the frequency of light when propagating within a transparent physical medium without any relative motion between the source, the medium and the detector, thus establishing the inapplicability of Einstein special relativity within physical media Prof. Santilli has established in 50 years at the mathematical, theoretical and experimental levels. The prediction and data elaboration are based on the novel isomathematics with related isosymmetries, isomechanics, and isorelativity for physical media,. where the prefix ``iso`` is used in its Greek meaning of characterizing "axiom-preserving" liftings of 20th century formulations. In particle, we have:

A) soRedShift (IRS) occurring when the transparent physical medium is at a sufficiently low temperature to assume all atoms as essentially being in their ground state. In this case, the Lorentz-Poincare'-Santilli (lp[s) isosymmetry shows that the energy needed for the interaction is supplied by light E = hv => E' = hv' < E, with evident isoshift toward the red v' < v. out of a vast material, we show below the Testing Station and an example of IRS.

B) IsoBlueShift (IBS), occurring when the transparent physical medium is at a sufficiently high temperature to assume all atoms as essentially being in their excited state. In this case, the LPS isosymmetry shows that the energy needed for the interaction is supplied by the excited atoms, resulting in an increase of the light energy E = hv => E' = hv' > E, with evident isoshift toward the blue v' > v. An example of IBS is provided below.

C) No-IsoShift (NoIS), that occurs when the energy lost by light is equal to the energy released by the medium, and no visible shift is measurable. The NoIS was established by showing that the increase of the temperature of the medium causes the transition from the IRS to the IBS, thus necessarily passing through the NoIS.

Additionally, we present below a spectrograph for the direct measurements of Santilli IsoRedShift of the Sun at Sunset during its transition from the Zenith to the Horizon that was proposed by Santilli for test in 1991 [2], ignored by laboratories around the world because it was in manifest violation of Einstein special relativity, and finally established twenty years later by serious scientists.

Mathematical, theoretical and experimental treatments of the above momentous discoveries, essentially establishing the wave character of light and the control of its speed and frequency, will be presented in details at the forthcoming San Marino Workshop and subjected to a scientific scrutiny. Particular attention will be provided to the expected cosmological consequences, the elimination of the universe expansion, the acceleration of the expansion, the big bang, the dark matter and dark energy, and their replacement with new 21st century models based on experiments on Earth along Galileo's teaching.

MAIN REFERENCES

[1] R. M. Santilli, Isotopic lifting of special relativity for physical media, Nuovo Cimento {\bf 51}, 570 (1967),
free pdf download

[2] R. M. Santilli, {\it Isotopic Generalizations of Galilei and Einstein Relativities,} Vol.~I (1991) [12a] and Vol. ~II (1991) [12b], Hadronic Press, Palm Harbor, Florida,
free pdf download Volume I,
free pdf download Volume II

[3] R. M. Santilli, "Experimental verifications of isoredshift with possible absence of universe expansion, big bang, dark matter and dark energy," The Open Astronomy Journal {\bf 3}, 124 (2010),
free pdf download

[4] R. M. Santilli, Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry, Vols. I, II, III,. IV and V, International Academic Press (2008),
free pdf download

[5] I. Gandzha and J Kadeisvili, New Sciences for a New Era:
Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of
Ruggero Maria Santilli,
Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011),
free pdf download

[6] C. Corda, Editor, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Lie-Admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, Kathmandu University (2011)
free pdf download

[7] J. Pace, Chairman, World Lecture series
Access link

1. VISUAL EVIDENCE OF SANTILLI I'S REDSHIFT AT SUNSET
Santilli has stated several times in his works that Special relativity and quantum mechanics have a majestic axiomatic structure and an impressive body of experimental verifications under the conditions of their origination, point-like particles and electromagnetic waves propagating in empty space (conditions historically referred to as ``exterior dynamical problems``). Jointly, Santilli has accumulated in about 50 years of research rather vast mathematical, theoretical, experimental, and industrial evidence according to which Einstein special relativity and quantum mechanics cannot be exactly valid for extended particles/wavepackets and electromagnetic waves propagating within physical media (``interior dynamical problems``) [4]. As an indication, it is not possible to even define special relativity within physical media due to the evident fact that drag forces prevent the existence of inertial reference systems; the reduction of macroscopic interior systems to elementary particles all in exterior conditions is prohibited by the No Reduction Theorems indicated below; there are serious consistency problems for the relativistic sum of speeds within media; the interactions for interior conditions are generally non-linear, non-local and non-Hamiltonian, thus being outside any representational capability of special relativity and quantum mechanics; Volume IV of Refs. [4] provides large experimental evidence on the inapplicability of special relativity and quantum mechanics for the dynamics of extended particles/wavepackets within the structure of hadrons, nuclei and stars. Here, we indicate the visual evidence supporting the lack of exact character of special relativity in our atmosphere, given by the tendency toward the red of Sunlight in the transition from the Zenith to the horizon. While at Harvard University in 1977, Santilli assumed the redness at Sunset as evidence of the violation of Doppler's law in our atmosphere due to the absence of appreciable relative motion between Sun and Earth, while excluding the scattering origin of the redness since we are dealing with direct Sun light. In subsequent years, he produced an impressive body of mathematical and theoretical elaborations [1,2], and finally established his IsoRedShift experimentally in 2010 [3]. Note that we are referring here and in the above pictures to the redness of the ``direct`` Sun light at the horizon and not to the redness of the surrounding atmosphere. Of course, Santilli is fully aware of the 20th century interpretation of the redness at Sunset consisting of a claimed dominance at the horizon of the scattering of red light over other frequencies. However, the sky is blue when the Sun is at the Zenith because, according to relativistic quantum mechanics, red light is quickly absorbed by our atmosphere, thus leaving blue light as the only penetrating one, as it is the case also in water. Consequently, if red light cannot reach us in the relatively short vertical trajectory in air, there is no scientific possibility for red light to reach us in the much longer trajectory in the horizon estimated of about 10,000 km. This establishes that the scattering interpretation of the redness at Sunset is essentially motivated by the intent of maintaining the validity of Einstein's special relativity under conditions it was never intended for, cannot be properly defined, and is disproved by available experimental evidence. To achieve credibility in maintaining Einsteinian theories in our atmosphere, colleagues should first prove that red light survives after the 10,000 km long trajectory in our atmosphere at the horizon, then show how the claimed predominance of the scattering of red light is proportional to its travel in atmosphere, additionally show that the same predominant scattering also holds for ```direct`` Sun light, and finally disprove in the only credible way, via counter-experiments, the experimental evidence provided below that the predominant red at sunset is indeed caused by Santilli IsoRedShift, that is, the shift toward the red of the only light that can reach us at the horizon, the blue light, due to propagation within air without any relative motion between the Sun and Earth.

2. ISOREDSHIFT EVIDENCE IN ARP'S ASSOCIATED QUASARS AND GALAXIES.
While at Harvard University, Santilli was impressed by the discovery in the mid1970s by his colleague at Harvard Halton Arp of quasars physically connected to associated galaxies, as established by clear gamma spectroscopy, yet their cosmological redshift are dramatically different. Santilli accepted and supported the very reason for which Harvard University terminated Halton Arp, namely, that his associated quasars and galaxies constitute evidence of the violation of Einstein special relativity. Santilli argued that light is much more IsoRedShifted in the huge quasars chromospheres than in the much lighter innergalactic medium. Consequently, when reaching intergalactic spaces, light exiting the quasar chromosphere is much more IsoRedShifted than light exiting the innergalactic medium [2]. Regrettably, due to the lack of a representation of Arp's data in a way compatible with Einsteinian theories, Arp's discovery has essentially been ignored by the orthodox community in cosmology, evidently in the hope that, in this way, its memory will fade away. The San Marino Workshop is intended to do serious science. Consequently, Arp's discovery will indeed be studied in detail. Colleagues interested in maintaining the validity of Einsteinian theories in the interior of Arp's quasars and associated galaxies are encouraged to present their argument, provided that they do not maintain the conjecture of the validity gf special relativity within quasarsand associated galaxies via the proffering of additional far fetched conjectures, such as those of a hypothetical ``dark light,`` or mysterious ``dark processes,`` and the like, since Einsteinian conjectures will be confronted with opposing experimental evidence of IsoRedShift on Earth.

3. THE WAVE STRUCTURE OF LIGHT AND THE HISTORICAL LORENTZ PROBLEM
Santilli has always accepted the reduction done by Einstein of light to photons for frequencies allowing a discrete absorption by black body or atomic structures. However, Santilli has never accepted the reduction to photons by Einstein followers for ``all`` possible frequencies of electromagnetic waves when propagating within a transparent medium, such as water. The reasons for such a rejection are numerous, such as: 1) The reduction to photons has no sense for radio waves of one meter in wavelength that experience the same phenomenology as that of light, such as refraction, reduction of speed, diffraction, etc.; 2) The reduction to photon is known as being unable to provide a numerical representation of the angle of refraction, evidently because photons scatter in all directions when hitting the water surface; 3) The reduction to photons cannot provide a numerical representation of the large reduction of speed in water for about 1/3 (calculations have shown that the reduction to photons scattering on or absorbed and re-emitted by molecules can at best represent a 5% to 7% reduction of speed); 4) The reduction to photons cannot provide a numerical representation of the diffraction of light as in the Newton prisms; 5) The reduction to photons would require that a very large number of photons must traverse a very large number of atoms and related nuclei without any scattering as necessary for the representation of the straight propagation of light in water as in the picture above, except for a small loss of intensity due precisely to scattering; etc. The only scientific, that is, quantitative - numerical representation of the behavior of light when propagating within physical media, by jointly avoiding tacit far fetched assumptions, is that light is a transverse electromagnetic wave created and propagated by the ether as a universal substratum with very high energy density. Santilli proved in his first 1957 paper while an undergraduate student in physics that such a conception of the ether does not imply the historical "ethereal wind" since the electron as well as matter at large are oscillations of the ether, as he later established in technical details with papers at the MIT Annals of Physics. Santilli also showed that, contrary to popular fears, the ether does not imply a violation of special relativity in vacuum, due to our impossibility of identifying experimentally the presumed privileged frame at rest with the ether. The return of light to the pre-Einsteinian, Maxwellian conception as an elm wave, brings into focus the historical Lorentz problem consisting of the identification of the symmetry leaving invariant the locally varying speed of light within physical media, i.,e.,

(1) C = c/n(t, r, d, ω, τ, v, E, ...)

where c is the speed in vacuum and n is the familiar index of refraction depending on time t, position r, density d, frequency ω, temperature τ, speed v, energy E, and numerous other quantities in a generally nonlinear way. As it is well known to experts for qualifying as such, Lorentz failed to achieve the desired invariance of speed (1) due to insurmountable technical difficulties, and had to restrict himself to the study of the simpler case C = c = constant, by writing a page of history in any case. A number of scholars will present at the San Marino Workshop mathematical, theoretical and experimental evidence of the wave structure of light. Einstein followers are welcome to present their reduction of light to photons, provided they achieve a numerical representation of ``all`` data in the behavior of light propagating within physical media. It should be indicated to non-experts that, for certain technical reasons, the local character of the speed of light is a necessary pre-requisite for anomalous shifts of its frequency.

4. THE UNIVERSAL LORENTZ-POINCARE'-SANTILLI ISOSYMMETRY FOR PHYSICAL MEDIA.
Santilli's most important hypothesis with far reaching implications is that matter alters the geometry of spacetime. Vice versa, it is not possible to alter any characteristics of light, such as speed, frequency, etc., without an alteration of spacetime he calls ``mutation.`` To prove this hypothesis, Santilli has conducted decades of studies to identify the symmetry of the most general possible, time-reversal invariant, symmetric spacetime with diagonal line element

which evidently includes as particular cases the Minkowskian, Riemannian, Finslerian and any other possible spacetime of the indicated class. This scientific journey was done to achieve, as a particular case, a solution of the historical Lorentz problem. For this aim, Santilli first discovered that the inability by Lorentz to identify the symmetry of the local speed of light C= c/n(t, r,d,ω, v, E,...) was due to the insufficiency of Lie's theory because the latter is notoriously linear, while the Lorentz problem is highly nonlinear. In the two monographs Foundations of Theoretical mechanics of 1978 and 1981 published by Springer-Verlag (initiated when Santilli was at MIT from 1974 to 1977 and completed when he was at Harvard University, with free pdf downloads
Volume I
Volume II ) as well as in various other works, Santilli constructed the isotopies of Lie's theory and related isomathematics for the invariant treatment of non-linear systems (see the lectures of Level II and III of series [7]). The solution of the Lorentz problem was subsequently quite easy and published for the first time in Il Nuovo Cimento of 1983 [1] (a paper which has been the victim of various attempted paternity frauds duly addressed in court because of lack of quotation of the originating Ref. [1] following specific requests). The pictures above illustrate the simplicity of the solution of the Lorenzt problem, and its ``direct universality`` for closed-isolated interior dynamical systems, as established by various independent authors. These studies resulted in an IsoSymmetry today known as the Lorentz-Poincare'-Santilli (LPS) IsoSymmetry, which is the universal symmetry for all infinitely possible line elements (2), with main IsoTransforms in 1+ 1 dimensions (Note the priority date of 1983)

related covering Doppler-Santilli isoshift law within
physical media reducible in first approximation to the expression in the space direction s

(4) ω' = (1 ± v_{s}n_{4}/c n_{s}) ω

and maximal causal speed within physical media (evidently depending on the direction of propagation)

(5) V_{max}^{s} = c n_{s} / n_{4} < = > c,

It should be stressed that, from the mutation of spacetime caused by matter, the LPS IsoSymmetry predicts a maximal causal speed which can be bigger, equal or smaller than c depending on the density, temperature, geometry, and other features of the medium. Consequently, the LPS IsoSymmetry provides a fully causal characterizations of recently measured speeds bigger than c, such as those measured by G. Nimtz for the superluminal propagation of elm waves within certain guides.
A technical understanding of the isoshifts requires a knowledge of Santilli Lie-isotopic theory, the LPS isosymmetry and isomathematics for its invariant treatment. Note that the LPS isosymmetry provides the invariance of all Riemannian, Finslerian and any other possible line element in 3+1 dimensions, the isosymmetry is isomorphic to the Lorentz-Poincare' symmetry and admits the latter as a simple particular case for all n = 1.

5. THE FIRST FORMULATION OF THE ISOREDSHIFT AND ISOBLUESHIFT.
Following paper [1], Santilli realized that the LPS isosymmetry does not yield a null shift of the frequency of light for null velocity because the n-characteristic quantities are also dependent on velocities, energy and other quantities. In this way, Santilli introduced the notions of IsoRedShift and IsoBlueShift for the first time in his monographs of 1991 [2] (the most general treatment being available in the two monographs Elememnts of Hadronic Mechanics published in 1995 by the Ukraine Academy of Sciences with free pdf downloads
Volume I
Volume II ). We reproduce above the front page of Volume II and some of the proposed experiments. The first two experiments are intended to verify the isoshift origin of light for Arp's associated quasars and galaxies. They essentially suggest the measurement of the frequency of light from a far away galaxy or quasars first in vacuum and then after passing through a physical medium such as a planetary atmosphere. The third proposal reads (note the priority date of 1991 that will be enforced)

PROPOSAL III: Measure in our laboratories the possible isoredshift of light in the transition from the zenith to the horizon.

6. THE ISOSHIFT TESTING STATION IN FLORIDA, R.S.A.
Following the prediction in 1991 of an anomalous Doppler's shift within physical media, Santilli proposed its verification or denial to virtually all astrophysical and particle physics laboratories around the world, including American (Harvard), Estonian, French, British, Russian and other Astrophysics Laboratory, as well as FERMILAB, SLAC, BROKHAVEN, CERN, ORSAY, DENY, RUTHERFORD, JINR and other laboratories. With the passing of the years, Santilli finally realized that contemporary academia cannot even consider, let alone conduct, an experiment in the event there is the slightest possibility of invalidating Einsteinian doctrines, no matter how important and inexpensive the experiment is. In this way, two decades later, Santilli finally decided in 2010 to build the IsoShift Testing Station depicted above in collaboration with the technicians of the Institute for Basic Research, where: the first (air conditioned) cabin houses the lasers (blue for most tests); the second (also air conditioned) cabin houses various wavelength analyzers; while the laser and analyzer are interconnected with a 60 feet (about 20 meters) long carbon steel pressure pipe. The first set of wavelength measurements are done with a vacuum pulled out of the pipe, while the second set of measurements are done with compressed air in the pipe to 2,000 psi (about 166 bars). Measurements for the IRS are done with the laser, pipe and analyzer at constant moderate temperatures of about 70 degrees F. Measurements for the IBS are done with the laser and analyzer at 70 degrees F, but the pressurized pipe at about 140 degrees F. A variety of lasers, analyzers and other equipment complete the experimental set up. All analyzers are placed directly against the exiting window of the laser beam to avoid the lack of accuracy in the event the laser light is propagated through mirrors. Note the necessity of using a ``blue`` laser light and ``air`` because the station is primarily intended to test the IsoRedShift of blue light at Sunset. It should be stressed that the above IsoShift Testing Station is primarily intended to establish the EXISTENCE of the IsoRedShift and the IsoBlueShift via systematics and repeatable measurements, and not its accurate VALUE for given conditions due to its evident preliminary character.

7. THE FIRST MEASUREMENT OF ISOREDSHIFT DONE BY SANTILLI AND HIS TECHNICIANS AT THE ABOVE TESTING STATION ON JUNE 27, 2009 (see Ref. [3] for details).

8. THE FIRST OF NUMEROUS EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS OF SANTILLI'S ISOREDSHIFT DONE BY INDEPENDENT SCIENTISTS ON JUNE 20. 2011 (see the Proceedings of the 2011 San Marino Workshop for details).

9. THE FIRST OF A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS OF SANTILLI'S ISOBLUESHIFT DONE BY INDEPENDENT SCIENTISTS ON JUNE 27, 2011 (see the Proceedings of the 2011 San Marino Workshop for details).

10. THE FIRST OF A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS OF THE ISOREDSHIFT ORIGIN OF THE REDNESS OF THE SUN AT SUNSET DONE BY INDEPENDENT SCIENTISTS ON JULY 21, 2011 (see the Proceedings of the 2011 San Marino Workshop for details). It should be indicated that the above spectrograph refers to the spectrum of the Sun at the Zenith from green to blue (top) and to the same spectrum when the Sun was at about 40 degrees on the horizon due to lack of equipment at that time to collect Sun light at lower elevations due to its dimness. Despite the elevation and the lack of visual redshift of Sun light, the above spectrogram, and numerous others, established an IsoRedShift of about 0.15 nm. Subsequent measurements confirmed the preceding ones, namely, that Santilli's IsoRedShift of light increases with the length of propagation of light within a transparent medium.

11. ABSENCE OF UNIVERSE EXPANSION, ACCELERATION OF THE EXPANSION AND BIG BANG.
Like Hoyle, de Broglie, Vigier, and other qualified scientists, Santilli never accepted the expansion of the universe because it implies a return of sciences to the Middle Ages since Earth must be at the center of the universe from Hoyle's law establishing the same cosmological redshift occuring for all galaxies at the same distance from Earth. Additionally, Santilli never accepted the acceleration of the expansion of the universe because, although respecting the unspoken ultimate aim at stake here (maintaining Einstein's theories in the universe), said acceleration of the expansion is excessively implausible since it would require an amount of energy to accelerate trillions of galaxies for trillions of years so big that it cannot be computed. Consequently, Santilli never accepted the big bang because, even though it succeeded in deviating attention from the expected inapplicability of Einsteinian theories in the universe, it did not represent the basic data. In fact, a primordial explosion would necessarily require lack of galaxies up to 15 billions light years from Earth contrary to the known distribution of galaxies in all directions from Earth; expansions following explosions notoriously decrease in velocity with the increase of the distance due to resistance caused by media; and calculations show that, after fifteen billion years, the background radiation should have been absorbed by galaxies and intergalactic media. The expansion of the universe, the acceleration of the expansion and the big bang are clearly eliminated by Santilli isoredshift because, rather than being empty to maintain Einsteinian theories, intergalactic spaces are physical media with high local energy density. Santilli IsoRedShift then provides a numerical representation of astronomical data on cosmological redshift, including their local variations, without any appreciable expansion. Moreover, Santilli isoredshift provides the necessary ``continuous`` source of the background radiation, evidently originating from the energy of light lost to intergalactic spaces (see ref. [3] for details). As Santilli puts it: Let us not forget that the visual evidence of the redshift of direct Sun light at Sunset is experimental evidence on the absence of the expansion of the universe, its acceleration, and the big bang.

12. ABSENCE OF DARK MATTER FOR THE DYNAMICS OF GALACTIC STARS.
It is popularly believed (see Wikipedia) that, in the 1970s, Vera Rubin ``measured`` anomalous ``speeds`` in peripheral galactic stars. In reality, she tacitly assumed the validity of Einstein special relativity within the medium inside galaxies, with the assumption of the exact validity of the Doppler shift, and consequentially derived the ``assumption`` of anomalous speeds for peripheral galactic stars. By recalling the evidence visible to the naked eye in a telescope that innergalactic spaces are physical media with a density increasing with the decrease of the distance from the center, and by recalling from Figure 1 that we cannot even formulate Einsteinian axioms within a medium due to the resistance (plus the No Reduction Theorems recalled below), Santilli never accepted the conjecture of dark matter. One of several arguments is the same as that for the big bang, namely, even though the conjecture of dark matter did indeed succeed in deviating attention from the expected violation of special relativity inside galaxies, said conjecture did not provide a quantitative representation of experimental data. This is due to the evident fact that, when uniformly distributed, dark matter cannot possibly cause any dynamical effects. Always for the intent of preserving Einsteinian theories within galaxies, the latter occurrence is forcing inconsistent assumptions, such as nonuniform distributions, or the support of an unverifiable and implausible conjecture with yet another unverifiable and implausible conjecture, such as that of the neutralinos, etc. Rather than exiting the boundaries of scientific inquiries, the dominant issue for innergalactic dynamics is the selection of the appropriate relativity, symmetry and physical laws valid within the physical media inside galaxies according to experiments on Earth. The use of Santilli's IsoRelativity, IsoSymmetry and IsoEedShift represents innergalactic dynamics in a time invariant way without any need for the conjecture of dark matter (see ref. [3] and the Proceedings of the 2011 San Marino Workshop).

13. ABSENCE OF DARK ENERGY FOR THE DYNAMICS OF THE UNIVERSE.
The conjecture of dark energy is another direct consequence of the tacit assumption of the exact validity of Einstein special relativity for all possible or otherwise conceivable conditions existing in the universe, including conditions dramatically beyond those of the original conception and experimental verifications, without a serious scrutiny. Santilli never accepted the conjecture of dark energy for essentially the same reason as those for the big bang and the dark energy, namely, the conjecture of dark energy did succeed indeed in deviating attention from the expected violation of special relativity under conditions it was never intended for or verified, but said conjecture did not represent the data. For instance, in the event uniformly distributed, dark energy cannot possibly cause any measurable effects in galactic dynamics, thus forcing highly implausible and unverifiable additional conjectures to maintain special relativity. In any case, according to Albert Einstein, energy is the source of the gravitational field. Therefore, dark energy should contract, rather than accelerate galaxies away from us. In Volume IV of Refs. [4], Santilli has provided diversified fits of particle experiments according to which the maximal causal speed inside hadrons, nuclei, stars, quasars and black holes is necessarily bigger than the speed of light in vacuum. Independently from that, speeds bigger than c have been measured by G. Nimtz and others. These speeds bigger than c eliminate the need for dark energy. As stated by Santilli (see Ref. [3] and proceedings [5]): Albert Einstein has clearly stated that his energy equivalence E = mc^2 was intended for ``point-like`` particles in vacuum, for the evident reason that, under these conditions, the maximal causal speed is c. When passing to extended particles, no scientific claim on the equivalence principle can be proffered before first identifying experimentally the maximal causal speed in their interior. By recalling the extreme conditions in the interior of black holes, the assumption that c is necessarily the maximal causal speed in their interior is excessively unfounded. The use of the IsoEquivalence for the hyperdense media inside black holes, quasars and stars, E = m c^2 n_s^2/n_4^2, where n_4 geometrizes the density and n_s geometrizes the anisotropy, a rather moderate nine-fold average increase of c eliminates the conjecture of dark energy. To remain a physicist, permit me to state the results of some fifty years of research in the field with due respect for different quantitative views. To the best of my knowledge, Einstein special relativity is nowhere applicable in the universe, because: it is not applicable in the innergalactic medium; it is not applicable in the intergalactic medium; it is not applicable in the hyperdense medium in the interior of stars, quasars and black holes made up of matter; while the lack of applicability of special relativity for antimatter is established on numerous igrounds, such as the lack of any differentiation between neutral matter and antimatter, and other insufficiencies.

14. THE THEOREM OF NO-REDUCTION OF INTERIOR SYSTEMS TO GALILEAN-EINSTEINIAN SETTINGS.
A spaceship in orbits around Earth (l.h.s) verifies all conventional conservation laws and symmetries of Galileo's relativity, as well known. However, the same spaceship during re-entry in our atmosphere violates all these laws, as equally well known. When faced with such a loss, Einstein followers have claimed throughout the 20th century that the above violation is only ``apparent`` (sic!) because, they so say, when the spaceship is reduced to its elementary constituents, such as quarks, conjectures etc., one recovers all conventional settings of nonrelativistic and relativistic dynamics. Santilli has proved in various refereed journals the so-called

NO REDUCTION THEOREM # 1: A macroscopic body in non-conservative conditions cannot be consistently decomposed into a finite number of elementary particles all in conservative conditions and, vice-versa, a finite number of elementary particles all in conservative conditions cannot consistently yield a nonconservative macroscopic body under the correspondence or other principles.

This inconsistency theorem, evident to first year graduate students but generally ignored by senior Einstein followers, establishes that the contact, zero-range, nonlinear, nonlocal and potential/nonhamiltonian interactions responsible for the spaceship slowing down in atmosphere, rather than ``disappearing`` for evident political reasons, originates from the most ultimate level of nature, that of the interaction of the orbitals of peripheral atoms in the spaceship with corresponding orbitals of the atmosphere. In short, Santilli No-Reduction Theorem provides ONE evidence, among many, of the impossibility for Einstein special relativity as being exactly valid within physical media, thus including its lack of exact validity within innergalactic media, intergalactic media, and the interior of hadrons, nuclei, stars, quasars and black holes.

15. THE INAPPLICABILITY OF EINSTEINIAN THEORIES TO IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES.
As it is well known, Einstein special relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics permit an excellent accuracy in controlling the dynamics of particles in the vacuum of accelerators (lhs). In view of this performance, Einstein followers have assumed Einsteinian theories and relativistic quantum mechanics to be exactly valid for the elaboration of actually measured quantities (cross sections, scattering angles, etc.) of high energy inelastic scattering (r.h.s). For decades, Santilli has shown that the numerical results of relativistic data elaborations are mere ``experimental beliefs`` because the axioms of special relativity and quantum mechanics have no arrow of time, thus being structurally reversible. Said axioms are then exactly valid for the dynamics of particles in the vacuum of accelerators, since the dynamics in this case is reversible. However, high energy inelastic scatterings are manifestly irreversible over time as visually expressed by the r.h.s. picture. Under such a condition Einsteinian theories and quantum mechanics cannot be assumed to be exact. To conduct systematic studies, Santilli has proved a no reduction theorem similar to the preceding one, initiated the study of irreversibility during his graduate studies at the University of Torino, Italy, and published in Il Nuovo Cimento of 1967 a paper on the Lie-admissible generalization of Lie's algebras at a time when only one living mathematician (Marvin Tomber, in the U.S.A.) was aware oi the existence of these algebras. In subsequent papers of 1967-1968, Santilli proved that Lie-admissible algebras can characterize the brackets of the time evolution of Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations with external terms, the latter being
necessary to represent irreversibility (remember that all known Lagrangian and Hamiltonians are reversible). While at the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University in 1977-1981, Santilli constructed the novel Lie-admissible new mathematics and related covering of quantum mechanics known as Hadronic mechanics for the invariant treatment of irreversible processes. In his papers at Harvard in 1978, Santilli showed that a quantitative treatment of irreversibility implies novel non-Lagrangian and non-Hamiltonian renormalizations that, unlike conventional field theoretical renormalization, alter the numerical values of the masses and other intrinsic characteristics of particles in the interior of the scattering region. A series of five seminal papers on the scattering theory of hadronic mechanics have been published in in the Proceedings of the 2011 Nepal Conference on Lie-admissible treatment of irreversible processes [5]. As one can see, these latter papers establish that the numerical values on the Higgs boson and other particles released by CERN, FERMILAB, SLAC, DESY, ORDAY RUTHERFORD, JINR, and other particle laboratories, unless subjected to a ``collegial scrutiny`` beyond the vested interests in particle laboratories, are very likely mere ``experimental beliefs.``